How to Use Supercapacitors to Implement an Effective Method for Backup Power

Many modern, line-powered smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices require backup power to safely power down or maintain communications in the event of an unexpected power outage. For example, electricity meters can provide detailed information on when, where and for how long the outages were made through the radio frequency interface. Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) has recently become popular for the above-mentioned uses due to the following advantages:

Use existing 2G, 3G and 4G frequency bands.

Supported by one or more operators in the Americas, Europe and Asia.

Compared to General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), the power and peak current are significantly reduced.

A well-designed backup power scheme helps to provide backup power of the right capacity, switch seamlessly between normal and backup power, and support multiple outages without maintenance. In this article, we’ll describe a simple way to implement a backup power scheme that uses TI’s TPS61094 buck-boost converter and a supercapacitor to meet NB-IoT and RF standards. We will also compare the TPS61094-based solution with an existing TI reference design.

NB-IoT Backup Power

Table 1 shows the current consumption over time for different NB-IoT operating modes. The peak value is 310mA in data transfer mode for 1.32s, and the load also varies significantly in different operation modes. The average current consumption of the whole process is 30mA for 80s. When the main grid suddenly loses power, backup power with sufficient capacity and load duration for seamless power switching are required. The TPS61094 60nA quiescent current (IQ) bidirectional buck-boost converter enables a reliable and simple backup power design while being a single-chip solution for supercapacitor charging and discharging without additional circuitry.

 

How to Use Supercapacitors to Implement an Effective Method for Backup Power

Table 1: Example of NB-IoT Load Curve for Saft Batteries

Using a supercapacitor and the TPS61094 to implement an efficient backup power circuit, Figure 1 shows how we configure the TPS61094 evaluation module (EVM) to provide sufficient backup power support for the NB-IoT load curves in Table 1.

  

Figure 1: TPS61094 EVM Backup Power Configuration

When the system power is turned on, the TPS61094 enters Buck_on mode: the bypass field effect transistor (FET) is turned on, providing a constant current of 500mA to the supercapacitor, and stops charging when the voltage across the supercapacitor is 2.5V. VSYS directly powers VOUT. When a power loss causes VSYS to drop, the TPS61094 automatically enters Boost_on mode: the bypass FET is turned off and VOUT is powered from the charge stored in the supercapacitor.

Figure 2 shows the results of a full cycle of backup power measured with an oscilloscope. VIN represents the system voltage of the grid. VOUT is the output voltage of the TPS61094 and VSUP is the supercapacitor voltage. IOUT is the current drawn by the load. In our example, the load draws 100mA, which is 3.33 times the average current draw of the load curve. We increased the load to determine how the TPS61094 switches the input power during grid outages under more extreme load conditions.

When the system power suddenly drops, the TPS61094 immediately enters Boost_on mode and uses the power of the supercapacitor to regulate VOUT. The buck/boost converter provides the required output current in 254.5s and can process 11.5 NB-IoT transactions. The TPS61094 discharges the supercapacitor until its voltage drops to 0.7V; at this point, the device enters shutdown mode until system VIN is restored. In Buck_on mode, the TPS61094 seamlessly charges the supercapacitor with constant current. As shown in Figure 2, the switching between discharge and charge of the supercapacitor is very smooth.

 

Figure 2: TPS61094 power-off and power-on measurement results

Other backup power implementations

You can also use other solutions, each with pros and cons. One is the Supercapacitor Backup Power Reference Design for Electric Meters, which uses a discrete circuit to charge the supercapacitor and a TPS61022 boost converter to boost the supercapacitor voltage to a higher system voltage during grid outages. The TPS61022 output current capability is higher than the TPS61094 solution, but requires more external components.

The other is a supercapacitor backup power reference design with current limiting and active cell balancing, which uses the TPS63802 buck/boost converter as a supercapacitor charger and regulator and eliminates the need for additional discrete charging circuit, but still requires additional external components for ORing power supply controller, charge current limit and supercapacitor terminal voltage setting.

Table 2 lists the important characteristics of each backup power method.

  

* The VIN minimum value for TPS61094 and TPS61022 is 0.7V. The VIN of the TPS63802 is 1.8V.

Table 2: Overview of Backup Power Solutions

Epilogue

Low-power wireless standards are becoming more widely used. With high integration, simple design and excellent light load efficiency, the TPS61094 is suitable for backup power applications using LTE-M, Lora, Bluetooth and other emerging wireless interfaces.

For higher output currents, a meter or current limit reference design is a very effective solution. Although this design requires more discrete components, higher power RF transmissions such as GPRS can be supported.

The Links:   LM64C149 EL480.240-PR1

NSSolarMagicSM73201DCArc reference design

/a>Solar” title=”Solar”>Solar” title=”Solar”>Solar cells PV DC Arc detection system, sensor interface, I/O Modules, solar data acquisition, motor control and instrumentation and control system. This article introduces SM73201 main features, block diagram and typical application circuit diagram, and low power and low cost data acquisition system block diagram, SolarMagic SM73201 DC Arc detection evaluation board main features, block diagram, analog front end and bill of materials (BOM).

SM73201: 16-Bit, 50 to 250 kSPS, Differential Input, MicroPower ADC

The SM73201 is a 16-bit successive-approximation register (SAR) Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC) with a maximum sampling rate of 250 kSPS. The SM73201 has a minimum signal span accuracy of ± 0.003% over the temperate range of − 40℃ to +85℃. The converter features a differential analog input with an excellent common-mode signal rejection ratio of 85 dB, making the SM73201 suitable for noisy environments.

The SM73201 operates with a single analog supply (VA) and a separate digital input/output (VIO) supply. VA can range from +4.5V to +5.5V and VIO can range from +2.7V to +5.5V. This allows a system designer to maximize performance and minimize power consumption by operating the analog portion of the ADC at a VA of +5V while interfacing with a +3.3V controller.

The serial data output is binary 2’s complement and is SPI™ compatible.

The performance of the SM73201 is guaranteed over temperature at clock rates of 1 MHz to 5 MHz and reference voltages of +2.5V to +5.5V. The SM73201 is available in a small 10-lead MSOP package. The high accuracy, differential input, low power consumption, and small size make the SM73201 ideal for direct connection to bridge sensors and transducers in battery operated systems or remote data acquisition applications.

Main features of SM73201:

■ Renewable Energy Grade

■ Guaranteed performance from 50 to 250 kSPS

■ ±0.003% signal span accuracy

■ Separate Digital Input/Output Supply

■ True differential input

■ External voltage reference range of +0.5V to VA

■ Wide input common-mode voltage range of 0V to VA

■ SPI™/QSPI™/MICROWIRE™ compatible Serial Interface

■ Operating temperature range of −40℃ to +85℃

■ Small MSOP-10 package

SM73201 main indicators:

■ Conversion Rate 50 kSPS to 250 kSPS

■ Offset Error Temp Drift 2.5 μV/℃

■ Gain Error Temp Drift 0.3 ppm/℃

■ SNR 93.2 dBc

■ THD − 104 dBc

■ Power Consumption

■ — 200 kSPS, 5V 5.3 mW

— 250kSPS, 5V 5.8mW

— Power-Down, 5V 10 μW

SM73201 application:

■ PV DC Arc Detect System

■ Direct Sensor Interface

■ I/O Modules

■ Solar Data Acquisition

■ Motor Control

■ Instrumentation and Control Systems

figure 1. SM73201 block diagram

figure 2. SM73201 Typical Application Circuit Diagram

image 3. SM73201 low-power and low-cost data acquisition system block diagram

SolarMagic Reference Design RD-195: SolarMagic SM73201 DC Arc Detection Evaluation Board

The SolarMagic™ reference design kit RD-195 includes the SM73201-ARC-EV PCB which is a UL1699B compliant Photo-Voltaic Arc Detect System with a minimal footprint of less than 50 mm x 30 mm. The reference design utilizes National semiconductor`s advanced Analog technology along with an innovative dynamic filtering technique to effectively detect the signature of Arcing conductors in the presence of highly noisy real world environments. Implemented with National Semiconductor`s PowerWise® technology, the Analog path requires less than 50 mW of power to implement the active filtering. The operation range of the device covers the industrial temperature range of -40℃ to +125℃.

SolarMagic™ technology is an overall solution that works in existing and new installations, residential, commercial, and utility scale projects. National Semiconductor`s 50 years of experience in the electronics industry delivers unsurpassed manufacturing, design, and development technology.

Figure 4. SolarMagic SM73201 DC Arc Detection Evaluation Board Outline Drawing

Main features:

• 1,000V isolation

• Maximum DC string current=15A

• Simple LED arc detection flag

• Industrial Temperature Range (-40℃ to +125℃)

• Small PCB footprint of less than 50mm x 30mm.

• Low power requirement
Figure 5. SolarMagic SM73201 DC Arc Inspection and Evaluation System Block Diagram

Image 6.Analog front end

Figure 7. A/D converter
SolarMagic SM73201 DC Arc Detection Evaluation Board Bill of Materials:


For details, see:
http://www.national.com/ds/SM/SM73201.pdf
and
http://www.national.com/an/AN/AN-2154.pdf

The Links:   LB104S01(TL)(02) LM32019T

AKMAK416016-channel capacitive touch sensor solution

/a>LED” title=”LED”>LED” title=”LED”>LED driver or GPIO, with automatic ambient drift correction for each sensing terminal, I2C serial interface, 10 with S/H circuit SAR ADC with integrated voltage regulator. Mainly used in mobile phones” title=”mobile phones”>mobile phones, PCs and household appliances” title=”household appliances”>household appliances. This article introduces the main features of AK4160, block diagram, 16-channel Touch switch connection diagram and 8-way touch switch and 8-way LED Display connection diagram, evaluation board AKD4160-A function, block diagram, circuit diagram and component layout.

The AK4160 is a low operating voltage and low power consumption 16-channel capacitive touch sensor.

Maximum 8 channels out of the 16-channel can be configured to LED drive or GPIO. The AK4160 has a channel independent automatic correct function of environmental drifts for each sense input. It reduces false detection by continuous calibration of the internal reference value in the situation when the input capacitance of the touch switch is changed by the external factors such as hydrothermal conditions. The automatic initial setting function sets the charge current and charge time according to the size and the shape of a touch switch. The AK4160 can be configured via serial interfaces, it is suitable for mobile phones, PCs and home electric applications.

AK4160 main features:

􀂄 Up to 16 capacitive sensor inputs

􀂄 Up to 8 general purpose inputs/outputs with PWM control for LED

􀂄 Automatic initial setting function for the charge current and time

􀂄 Independent automatic environmental drifts correct function for each sense terminal

􀂄 Independent threshold configuration for each sense terminal

􀂄 Selectable multi touch feature

􀂄 Integrated Median Averaging Filter

􀂄 Selectable 3 interrupt outputs that be able to use as GPIOs

􀂄 Reset Input pin

􀂄 I2C Serial Interface

􀂄 10 bit SAR A/D Converter with S/H circuit

􀂄 Integrated Regulator

􀂄 Low Power Consumption: Typ. 3.4uA (Sampling rate=512ms, 16ch Sensor input Active)

􀂄 Power Down Current: Typ. 1.0uA

􀂄 Low Power Operation: VDD = 1.71V ~ 3.6V

􀂄 Operating Temperature: Ta = -40 ~ 85℃

􀂄 Package: 28pin QFN (4.0mm x 4.0mm, pitch 0.4mm)

Figure 1. AK4160 block diagram

The touch switch (capacitor) that is connected to the sense input is charged up with direct current during a given period of time. The switch is connected to ground before the measurement. As a result, the touch switch capacitance is completely discharged before start being charged. When the touch switch is fully charged, the voltage is inversely proportional to the capacitance. When the touch switch is touched, this charge voltage decreases because the capacitance value when the switch is touched is larger than when not touched. The charged voltage is converted to a digital data by ADC. The data is get through the noise reduction filter, and compared to a touch threshold value. When the measurement value exceeds the threshold that is corrected environmental drifts, the AK4160 updates the status register to the touch detected state .

Figure 2. AK4160 touch sensor block diagram

Figure 3. AK4160 16-way touch switch connection diagram

Figure 4. AK4160 8-way touch switch and 8-way LED Display connection diagram

Evaluation Board AKD4160-A

The AKD4160-A is an evaluation board for the AK4160, which is 16-channel capacitive touch sensor with a low operating voltage and a low operating power. Since the AKD4160-A has a I2C serial I/F, it is possible to control the AK4160 by writing and reading registers, and operate kinds of touch pad with a capacitor sensor connector on the AKD4160-A.

Evaluation Board AKD4160-A Features:

• I2C serial I/F

• Cap Sensor Connector

• Touch Pad Operations

Figure 5. Block Diagram of Evaluation Board AKD4160-A

Figure 6. Evaluation Board AKD4160-A Circuit Diagram (1)

Figure 7. Evaluation Board AKD4160-A Circuit Diagram (2)

Figure 8. Evaluation Board AKD4160-A Circuit Diagram (3)


Figure 9. Evaluation Board AKD4160-A Component Layout
For details, see:
http://www.asahi-kasei.co.jp/akm/en/product/ak4160/ak4160_f00e.pdf
and
http://www.asahi-kasei.co.jp/akm/en/product/ak4160/akd4160-a0-01e.pdf

The Links:   SKKT 570/18 E M170EG01 V2

The new crown pneumonia epidemic has caused “desertification” in the manufacturing industry, and the global supply chain is under enormous pressure

Global – According to the latest report jointly released by Baker McKenzie International LLP (hereinafter referred to as “Baker McKenzie”) and Oxford Economics (Oxford Economics) – “Beat the new crown pneumonia: Supply chain resilience becomes Key to Recovery”, the pandemic has triggered an unprecedented global supply chain crisis due to a lack of communication and flexibility at multiple levels of the global supply chain and a lack of diversity in procurement strategies.

On the upside, the report expects the world’s hardest-hit manufacturing sector to recover first in the first half of 2021. This is as pent-up demand will be released, boosted by a recovery in market sentiment, while higher production will make up for previous output losses.

The current global supply chain crisis is largely due to temporary manufacturing “desertification” triggered by the pandemic, where output in a city, region or country is drastically reduced due to lockdown restrictions, making it impossible to do anything but necessities such as food and medicine. Production purchasing activities.

The report highlights that the immediate impact of a downturn in global supply chains is already starting to materialize, such as the closure of South Korean auto plants due to a shortage of parts in China; and the severe shortage of parts for smartphone makers. As a result, global trade is expected to decline by more than 4% in the first quarter of 2020, with even further declines in the second quarter.

As lawyer Mattias Hedwall, global chairman of Baker McKenzie’s international business and trade practice, said, the epidemic has had a serious impact on global supply chains. “It is clear that prolonged shutdowns in parts of the world’s economies are affecting supply chains as existing inventories dry up,” he said. Adapt to a changing environment, including the impact of changes in infrastructure, taxation and employment, and the ability for businesses to quickly make choices based on changes as the situation rapidly stabilizes.”

Impact on global manufacturing

While there are still many possibilities for the global economy in the next 24 months, Oxford Economics’ baseline forecast is that global manufacturing will fall by 5% in the first six months of this year compared with 2019, and will basically recover in the second half of 2020, Finally surpass 2019 supply chain levels in early 2021.

As the table below shows, the pace and extent of the recession and subsequent recovery varied across manufacturing sub-sectors. In the first half of 2020, the global automotive industry saw the largest decline in output at 13%, followed by textiles (8%) and electronics (7%). The report also shows that the automotive and other transportation equipment industries may lead the recovery along with the textile industry.

The four main manufacturing industries analyzed in the report are expected to start recovering in the second half of 2020, with the strongest recovery in the automotive and textile industries, growing by 10% and 8% respectively (relative to the levels in the first half of 2020), and by 2021, all industries output will grow at least at 2019 levels.

Impact on China

Due to China’s unique position in the global supply chain and its sensitivity to falling global demand as a major exporter, the forecast shows that China’s production this year will decline significantly more than the global decline (as shown in the table below), automotive and electronics Wait until 2022 for the industry to truly recover to 2019 levels. In the first half of 2020, compared to the fourth quarter of 2019, production in China’s auto industry will fall by 19%, while that in the electronics industry will decline by 17%. In the first half of 2020, textile production will fall by 14%, while overall manufacturing and aviation will fall by 11% and 6%, respectively.

Jia Dian’an, chief representative of Baker McKenzie’s Beijing office, said: “In China, negative growth in industrial output of automobiles and Electronic products may pose challenges for supply chain companies. Restricted by travel restrictions and quarantine requirements, companies are There will be challenges in restoring production capacity. There will also continue to be disruptions to logistics and transportation networks that supply upstream components. Companies in China that source raw materials and components from overseas will face supply chain disruptions due to business restrictions and production shutdowns in countries around the world In addition, with some Chinese suppliers forced to close or unable to restore sufficient capacity, many downstream players in the global supply chain will be forced to look for alternative suppliers. And in terms of finding alternative suppliers that can meet specifications and quality requirements There may be difficulties. Downstream companies may be unable to meet their contractual commitments or resume sustainable operations.”

Jiayi Cao, a partner in Baker McKenzie’s M&A practice, said: “Given the current situation, investors tend to be more cautious in closing deals, so transaction values ​​are bound to decline. Asset values ​​may decline, and we expect transactions in and out of China. Activity will decrease. Whether it is a short-term investment sentiment issue or a ripple effect in other industries will depend on whether the outbreak can be brought under control in a relatively short period of time.”

Attorney Martin David, head of Baker McKenzie’s Large Projects Department in Asia Pacific, expects: “Chinese private companies will increasingly participate in China’s diversified supply chain operations and production, while private companies will have a greater role in China’s domestic production and exports. The impact will also grow.” David said, “While no industry is immune, we expect industrial manufacturing to be hit the hardest and, conversely, the greatest opportunity for investment and growth.”

China’s economy has largely stalled in recent weeks, leaving many multinationals with limited contingency plans to deal with the impact of supply chain disruptions. Global companies that rely heavily on China have also exposed supply chain concentration.

The problem is exacerbated for companies that rely on just-in-time production processes (especially important in industries such as automotive) and/or have low inventory levels.

Supplier goes bankrupt

As the focus of the outbreak shifts from east to west, the same issues above have become more acute for companies sourcing highly specialized goods and services in key markets such as Germany, northern Italy and the United States. In the coming months, there may even be challenges in securing supplies of certain categories of commodities if the focus of the outbreak shifts to emerging markets again.

The risk of global supplier bankruptcy is also growing, said attorney Debra A. Dandeneau, chair of Baker McKenzie’s Global Restructuring and Insolvency practice in New York.

Attorney Dandeneau commented that some companies may need to support their suppliers at least in the short term, and it is crucial to understand the root causes of the difficulties facing suppliers. Other suppliers may begin or prepare to begin some kind of formal reorganization or bankruptcy process, which could create additional business delays for the company. Knowing how the law works in the various jurisdictions that may be involved will help companies develop strategies to deal with the situation in advance.

long-term transformation

The report highlights that supply chain risk management has jumped to the top of many companies’ agendas due to the current supply chain crisis, and is likely to remain high even after the immediate threat of the novel coronavirus begins to recede.

While this risk management process can be costly, it can often be mitigated by related decisions affecting product pricing (shifting demand balancing to less affected production lines, inventory purchasing, and management and redeployment of production processes across locations). offset against the resulting savings. Clearly, supply chain risk management activities have increased as a matter of urgency to mitigate some of the immediate effects of the coronavirus, such as a sharp drop in output in some areas.

In the long term, the digitization of supply chains will gradually become the way companies develop strategies for supply chain disruptions and gain business resilience. In this context, big data analytics can assist companies in streamlining the supplier selection process, and cloud computing is increasingly being used to facilitate and manage supplier relationships.

Anne Petterd, Partner, Technology, Communications and Commercial Practice in Baker McKenzie’s Sydney office, said: “Strengthening supply chain management and digital adoption has never been more important. Companies with well thought-out supply chain risk management processes are more likely to identify issues The impact of the incident on their supply chain and product availability provides companies with an opportunity to assess how best to respond in a difficult environment.”

road ahead

The report concludes that if companies want to take advantage of the various stimulus policies being rolled out around the world, they will need to remain nimble, agile and ready to respond to operational, labor and supply and demand constraints, as well as revisit strategic and tax planning, and rethink the post-pandemic era. business Model. This could mean building supply chains and accelerating digital transformation to do more to meet SDGs while building resilient businesses.

When it comes to what the new normal means, it is clear that companies can facilitate the formation of the new normal through robust planning and a more comprehensive risk management approach.

The Links:   TT250N16KOF GD50PIY120C5SN

Mismatch between Controller and Display Interfaces: A Developer’s Guide

The choice of Display is becoming an increasingly important element in the embedded development process. For a new generation of users who have grown up with smartphone touchscreen interfaces, the fixed-function buttons, knobs and switches of traditional industrial equipment interfaces, and basic status indicator LEDs seem like a throwback to the dark ages.

By Pawel Kaczynski, Manager, Center of Excellence for Embedded Systems

The choice of Display is becoming an increasingly important element in the embedded development process. For a new generation of users who have grown up with smartphone touchscreen interfaces, the fixed-function buttons, knobs and switches of traditional industrial equipment interfaces, and basic status indicator LEDs seem like a throwback to the dark ages.

As a result, embedded developers around the world often approach new design projects with the expectation that they will need to design larger and more graphically rich display interfaces than the previous generation.

This has important implications not only for the specifications of the display itself, but also for the choice of microcontroller or application processor for embedded systems. This is because a display may have one of a number of interfaces to a host controller or processor that is not universally supported by the MCUs and application processors most commonly used in embedded systems.

This means that it is more likely than ever that a designer’s development plan will be frustrated by a mismatch between the display and the host controller. To help designers avoid this risk, this article describes the most common interfaces used by LCDs and how well they are supported by popular MCU and processor families.

Multiple Display Interface Technologies

The problem with matching a designer’s preferred MCU or application processor to their preferred display is that while display manufacturers use many interfaces, the MCU or processor typically supports only one or two.

Fortunately, display manufacturers’ choice of interface is not random: low-frequency, low-data-rate interfaces are typically used for smaller, simpler displays; faster interfaces are typically used for larger displays measuring more than 10 inches diagonally. display, as shown in Figure 1. Embedded designers often want to specify a low-end MCU that supports a low-speed interface to control a system with a small display, and a high-speed processor that supports a high-speed interface to control a system with a large display.


Approximate relationship between monitor interface and monitor size (Image source: Future Electronics)

However, issues often arise when migrating, for example, when upgrading a system design with a new, larger graphics display, while keeping the existing MCU. The MCU may have enough power to drive the expected display output, but does it have the correct onboard interface?

At this point, it is important to understand the full range of interfaces that may be used in an embedded display. The most common are:

・ RGB: Parallel interface. The full version of the RGB interface transmits 24 bits of data per pixel (24 bpp), or 8 bits of data per color. Lite versions are RGB565 (16 bpp) and RGB332 (8 bpp). In addition to display data signals, the interface also transmits control signals: row and column pointers (VSYNC and HSYNC), and clock signals that control the refresh rate.

・Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI): In embedded systems, SPI is most commonly used for communication between peripherals such as sensors, data converters, memories, and transceivers and the host MCU. However, a small low-resolution LCD can also be connected to the MCU via SPI.

・ MCU parallel interface: Several versions of this interface are in use. The MCU can use 11 signals (8-bit parallel data), 12 signals (9-bit parallel data), or 21 signals (18-bit parallel data).

• Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS): A high-speed signal interface. In smaller LCDs of 15 inches, manufacturers use a single-channel LVDS interface with 4 or 6 channels, while in LCD units larger than 15 inches, a dual-channel LVDS interface is used. The LVDS interface has high immunity to EMI and low power consumption. But its high-speed operation requires considerable PCB layout expertise.

・ MIPI Display Serial Interface (MIPI-DSI): Similar to LVDS, a high-speed signal interface, but mainly used in mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets, as well as in automotive and IoT devices. It consists of a differential signal for clock and at least one differential pair for data (usually with two or four channels). MIPI-DSI runs through complex protocol software, performing high-speed data transfers while consuming very little power. Unlike the LVDS interface, it supports bidirectional communication. But like LVDS, it requires advanced PCB layout techniques.

In fact, the complexity of circuit board design involving high-speed display interfaces is considerable. Unlike SPI or RGB24, which only need to control single-ended trace impedance, for MIPI-DSI and LVDS interfaces, developers need to control differential trace impedance. Strict rules governing the processing of features in high-speed signal systems need to be followed, including differential pair stacking. It is important to take these difficulties into account when planning to implement designs that include large displays.

It should also be said that, in addition to the aforementioned interfaces widely used in embedded systems, displays may also support multimedia interfaces used in consumer devices such as TVs and computer monitors: HDMI, DisplayPort, and Embedded DisplayPort (eDP). Some LCD Modules for embedded designs also support these interfaces. For example, Winstar makes LCD modules as small as a 5-inch WF50BTIFGDHTV with an HDMI interface, intended for use in Raspberry Pi™ board-based development projects.

MCU/MPU specifications require careful study

Display interface diversity is an issue for embedded developers, not only because the preferred MCU or processor may only support a single display interface, but it may not be the interface in the selected display. Even more challenging than this: As shown in Figure 2, some device manufacturers only support a limited number of interfaces across their entire product line. Many OEMs only develop on a single MCU platform: this means they can only choose from a limited range of displays that support the same interface as that platform.


How leading MCU and embedded processor manufacturers are supporting display interfaces in their products (Image credit: Future Electronics)

In general, high-end MCUs provide dedicated support for graphics, including interfaces such as parallel RGB24 supporting various color depths, or MIPI-DSI interfaces with two or four channels.

At the very high end, dedicated processors for graphics applications can even provide integrated HDMI or eDP interfaces.

Of course, SPI is a standard feature of any MCU or processor, so for small, low-resolution displays, the choice of host controller or processor is virtually limitless. Developers only need to pay attention to applications that contain many peripherals connected via SPI: Here, the designer needs to ensure that the controller or processor has enough pins and board space to connect the chip select (CS) signal to the display because Each SPI device (including the display) requires its own CS signal.

How to handle interface mismatch

Therefore, this article suggests that the preferred MCU or processor may not be compatible with the preferred display Model or size. Instead of compromising by choosing a device or display that is less suitable for the application, developers can build a bridge between two incompatible interfaces.

The easiest way to implement this bridging function is to use an off-the-shelf IC to perform the necessary conversion operations. An example is the CrossLink family of interface bridges from Lattice semiconductor, shown in Figure 3. These devices are actually function-specific FPGAs: they convert signals between MIPI-DSI, LVDS, and RGB24 formats, supporting all data types and any number of channels.


Conversion capabilities of the Lattice CrossLink family of products (Image source: Lattice Semiconductor)

Furthermore, CrossLink devices perform additional functions to offload tasks from the host controller, such as LCD initialization, control, and sequencing. Lattice provides application-specific IP for FPGA hardware, so designers do not need to develop FPGA code in VHDL or Verilog.

The eight products in the CrossLink family include a component in a chip-scale package as small as 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm. Performance in MIPI-DSI interface mode is sufficient to support 4K UHD resolutions and provide data rates up to 12 Gbps.

While the FPGA-based CrossLink family offers the flexibility to support multiple data formats in a single hardware platform, ROHM also offers a range of fixed-function IC solutions. For example, the BU90T82 serializer IC performs RGB24 to LVDS conversion, while the BU90R102 performs conversion in the opposite direction.

Sometimes the situation is not in favor of the developer and the use of a discrete bridge IC is not possible, such as when the main controller or processor board design is finalized but a last-minute change in marketing specifications requires the use of a new, higher performance or larger when the LCD is displayed.

If the production run rate is high enough, some display manufacturers such as Tianma offer display customization, providing unique displays that support the interface required by the customer’s motherboard.

Obviously, the issue of display selection is complicated by limited display interface support in the host MCU or application processor. Manufacturers such as NXP Semiconductors, Renesas, STMicroelectronics, and Microchip are steadily increasing the range of professional graphics display controllers and processors they offer in response to growing market demands, so compatibility between embedded devices and displays Sex will be improved.

But in the case of an interface mismatch, an interface conversion solution from Lattice or Rohm Semiconductor provides a solution that allows developers to retain the preferred display and host controller or processor.

The Links:   7MBP25RA120-59 7MBP100VEA120-50

The market value has exceeded 40 billion, and another chip design company has officially landed on the Science and Technology Innovation Board

According to the announcement of the exchange, Hengxuan Technology was listed on the Science and Technology Innovation Board of the Shanghai Stock Exchange today (December 16). The company’s stock code is 688608, the issue price is 162.07 yuan per share, and the issue price-earnings ratio is 355.03 times. The company’s stock rose sharply at the opening. 141%, the opening price was 391 yuan per share, and the total market value has exceeded 40 billion yuan.

According to the announcement released by Hengxuan Technology on December 14, the company’s actual net raised funds were approximately RMB 4.759 billion, and the net amount of funds raised was approximately RMB 4.759 billion.

The previous registration draft shows that the company’s raised funds will be invested in the smart Bluetooth audio chip upgrade project, the smart WiFi audio chip research and development and industrialization project, the Type-C audio chip upgrade project, the R&D center construction project, and the development and technology reserve project.

According to the data, Hengxuan Technology was established in June 2015 with a registered capital of 90 million yuan. Its main business is the research and development, design and sales of intelligent audio SoC chips, providing customers with an edge intelligent master control platform with voice interaction capabilities in AIoT scenarios. At present, the products are widely used in low-power smart audio terminal products such as TWS headphones, Type-C headphones, and smart speakers.

In recent years, Hengxuan Technology has developed rapidly, and its operating income and net profit have continued to grow. The registration draft shows that from 2017 to 2019, Hengxuan Technology’s operating income was 84.5657 million yuan, 330 million yuan, and 649 million yuan, respectively, and the net profit attributable to the owners of the parent company was -144 million yuan, 1.7704 million yuan, and 67.3788 million yuan respectively. Yuan.

Hengxuan Technology predicts that the operating income in 2020 will be 980 million to 1.06 billion yuan, an increase of 51.04% to 63.37% over 2019, and the net profit attributable to owners of the parent company is expected to be 170 million to 190 million yuan, a year-on-year increase of 170 million to 190 million. An increase of 152.32% to 182.01%.

At present, Hengxuan Technology’s products have entered the world’s mainstream Android mobile phone brands, including Huawei, Samsung, OPPO, Xiaomi, etc., and also occupy an important position in professional audio manufacturers, including Harman, SONY, Skullcandy and other brands. In addition, the company’s products are currently also used in the audio products of professional audio manufacturers such as Edifier and Wanmo, and Internet companies such as Google, Ali, and Baidu.

It is worth mentioning that Hengxuan Technology has received investment from Ali and Xiaomi Changjiang Industrial Fund. At present, Xiaomi Changjiang Industrial Fund and Ali each hold 4.66% and 3.73% of Hengxuan Technology.

On April 22 this year, the Shanghai Stock Exchange officially accepted the application for listing on the Science and Technology Innovation Board of Hengxuan Technology.

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It’s up again!Due to the shortage of production capacity, the price of NAND Flash controller may rise by about 15~20% | TrendForce

According to a survey conducted by the semiconductor Research Office of TrendForce, it is limited by the full capacity of upstream wafer foundries such as TSMC and UMC, and the shortage of downstream packaging and testing capacity, including many NAND Flash companies such as Phison and Silicon Motion. Controller manufacturers are unable to respond to customers’ demands for additional orders.

In addition to suspending quotations for new orders, these controller manufacturers will face an increase in controller prices due to the critical period of price negotiation in the first quarter of 2021, with an expected increase ranging from 15% to 20%.

  

In addition, from the perspective of supply, thanks to the strong demand for chromebooks and TVs, the demand for eMMC low- and medium-capacity (including 64GB and below) products has increased. However, many original manufacturers have stopped updating such products, and only use 2D or 3D NAND. Older processes such as 64-layers have responded, and the proportion of old processes in the supply of the original factory has continued to decline.

Under the consideration of profit, the willingness of the original factory to supply directly decreases, which prompts customers to obtain the quantity from the module factory that can obtain NAND Flash components and controllers.

 The price increase of the controller has caused the price of the module to rise at the same time, especially the chromebook products with the main capacity of 32 and 64GB.

Although the current overall NAND Flash market is still in a state of oversupply, the shortage of controller capacity makes the supply of medium and low capacity in short supply. The price increase of this component may lead to an increase in fixed costs, and OEMs and other purchasers will also be under pressure, which may lead to some high-demand capacity products (such as 32/64GB required by chromebooks) from module manufacturers in the first quarter of 2021. There may be a price increase.

In terms of SSD products, the supply is mainly from Samsung and other original manufacturers, and most of them respond to in-house products. They have a relatively long-term capacity arrangement with wafer foundries, and there is no reported price increase or shortage.

However, TrendForce also observed that the delivery time is prolonged, and the PCIe 4.0 generation products tend to increase the proportion of outsourcing manufacturers, which means that the future price trend will be affected by outsourcing manufacturers.

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Digi-Key Electronics Announces Global Distribution Partnership with Connector Supplier ERNI Electronics

Distributor of Electronic components in stock with the most abundant supply and fastest delivery in the world Digi-Key Electronics has announced a partnership with ERNI Electronics Formed a strong global distribution partnership to sell its rugged electronic connectors for a wide range of industries including IoT, automotive, transportation, aerospace, military, industrial, medical, lighting, communications and instrumentation.

Trusted for safety and robust vibration resistance, ERNI connectors and cable assemblies are designed with features including dual beam female contacts, Terminal Position Assurance (TPA) and anti-slant housings. ERNI products are available in a variety of termination styles, including surface mount, crimp and solder.

ERNI’s rugged, small interconnect devices are now available through Digi-Key and provide signals and data for all types of applications.

“The breadth and depth of ERNI’s product portfolio makes it the high-quality, robust, reliable solution that designers in all industries demand,” said David Stein, Digi-Key’s Vice President of Global Supplier Management. “We look forward to delivering to our global engineering customers Group promotion, offering ERNI’s Maxibridge and other surface mount connector solutions.”

ERNI first introduced DIN technology in 1968 and has continued to develop robust and reliable interconnect solutions ever since. The company’s product portfolio includes well-known board-to-board products such as DIN, 2 mm HM ERmet and ZD, as well as a robust wire-to-board product line, including the 2.54 mm pitch 12 A MaxiBridge and the 1.27 mm pitch MicroBridge, each of which The contacts are all capable of carrying 9 A.

Bill Knable, President, Americas, ERNI Electronics, said: “ERNI places great value on maintaining strong, growing relationships with distributors, and we are delighted to now partner with Digi-Key Electronics. We look forward to reaching new customers for our products, allowing They buy our high-quality electrical connectors through Digi-Key.”

To learn about ERNI For more information or to order a portfolio from the company, please visit Digi-Key website.

About ERNI

ERNI is an international family business and one of the world’s leading connector manufacturers with a history of more than 70 years. ERNI develops, manufactures and sells a wide variety of electronic connectivity solutions for various industries, including IoT, transportation, automation, medical and more. ERNI operates in more than 40 countries around the world and has state-of-the-art production facilities in Europe, North America and Asia Pacific, enabling it to precisely target its customer base. The company’s international headquarters are in Switzerland and the Americas headquarters are in Midlothian, Virginia, USA. To learn more about ERNI, visit erni.com, LinkedIn or YouTube.

About Digi-Key Electronics

Digi-Key Electronics is a globalElectronic ComponentComprehensive service authorized distributor, headquartered in Thief River Falls, Minnesota, USA, and distributes more than 9.8 million products from more than 1,200 premium brand manufacturers, including more than 1.4 million in stock for immediate shipment. Digi-Key also offers a wide variety of online resources such as EDA and Design Tools,Specifications,reference design, instructional articles and videos,multimedia libraryand other resources. 24/7 technical support via email, phone and live chat.For additional information or to inquire about Digi-Key’s extensive product library, please visit www.digikey.cn and follow our LinkedIn, WeChat, Weibo, QQ Video and Station B.

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Facebook digital currency Libra to launch as soon as January next year

 

Facebook-sponsored digital currency Libra is scheduled to launch as early as January next year, but the actual range of Libra versions will be more limited than previously expected, according to three people familiar with the matter.

Libra’s original plan was to launch a basket of currency-backed synthetic tokens, but the move raised concerns from regulators. Therefore, in April of this year, the Libra Association adjusted its original plan, saying that it plans to launch digital versions of several currencies, as well as “digital composite versions” of all tokens.

However, the association will only issue a single token backed by the U.S. dollar this time around, one of the people said. Other currencies and synthetic versions will be launched at a later stage, the person added.

The exact timing of Libra’s launch depends on when the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (Finma) approves the project to go public as a payments service, but could be as soon as January, the three people said. The Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority responded that it would not comment on Libra’s application. The application was originally submitted in May.

The Libra project was first proposed in June 2019. The vision of the Libra project has been downgraded repeatedly as the project has been questioned by regulators around the world. Regulators are concerned that Libra will threaten the stability of the currency and become a tool for money laundering.

While narrowing Libra’s scope could please wary regulators, critics have complained that a single-currency-backed token could make users pay extra when converting currencies, allowing the project to so-called “achieve broader financial penetration” “The name is not true.

The Libra project was originally proposed by Facebook executives. But the birth of Libra was full of twists and turns. In late 2019 and early 2020, the founding members of the project (including PayPal, Mastercard, Vodafone, and eBay, among others) pulled out one after another, and deliberately distanced themselves from the controversial project.

Then, in April, the Libra Association announced that it would overhaul the project’s vision to address regulators’ concerns, while narrowing the scope of the project and pledging to take additional steps to manage the system to prevent abuse.

The Libra project has also been questioned because of the privacy scandals Facebook itself has faced. But several Libra members said that in May, the association’s appointment of Stuart Levey, HSBC’s legal director and former government official in charge of fighting terrorism financing, as the association’s first chief executive, marked a major milestone in the project. Turning point, striving to be independent from Facebook.

Since then, some members have been scrambling to develop and test their own products so that they can launch products on the digital currency network in time when it actually goes live. One such project is Facebook’s Novi (formerly Calibra), a digital wallet that allows Facebook users to hold Libra.

A person familiar with Novi said the wallet is “ready from a product perspective” but will not be rolling out anywhere at this time. Novi needs to obtain licenses in various U.S. states, the person said. Novi has been licensed in multiple states, but is still waiting for “up to ten states, including New York”.

It is unclear how key members of the association, such as Uber and Spotify, will utilize the currency. Some members revealed that they will first observe the market reaction after Libra’s release before considering use-case investments.

At the same time, Bitcoin rose to an all-time high of nearly $20,000 this week, as professional investors and central banks showed increased interest in digital currencies and the pandemic accelerated the transition from cash to digital payments. Separately, PayPal, the first founding member to exit the Libra project, announced last month that it would support cryptocurrencies. PayPal’s CEO also called the digital transformation of the currency “inevitable.”

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Telehealth technology can safely save time and costs in healthcare

Health provider follow-up via computer or smartphone is a viable alternative to in-person patient follow-up for certain pediatric heart conditions, according to results of a pilot study presented this week at the AHA Scientific Sessions.

Ashraf Harahsheh, MD, a cardiologist at Children’s National Hospital and the study’s senior author, said: “With cardiologists like Dr. Craig Sable, over the years at Children’s National Pediatric Cardiology, we have used telehealth for physicians to communicate with Physician-to-physician communication.” “But this is the first time that we actually have the proper technology to speak directly to patients and their families at home without the need for an in-person visit.”

  

“We will[telemedicine]R&D has become a major daily part of reading echocardiograms in the region and around the world,” said Craig Sable, MD, associate director of cardiology at National Children’s Fund. “Telemedicine has enabled UNICEF physicians to expand their services to improve the care of children and avoid unnecessary transportation, family travel and off-duty time. “

Participants in the virtual visit pilot study were previously patients with hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, syncope or needing to discuss cardiac test results. The retrospective sample included 18 eligible households and received virtual visits/telemedicine follow-up options between 2016 and 2019. Six months after the virtual visit, none of the participants asked urgent heart problems. Although many (39%) scheduled additional in-person cardiac visits, none of these follow-up in-person visits were the result of insufficient virtual visits.

“There are many more questions to be answered about how best to appropriately use technological advances that allow us to see and hear our patients without them having to travel great distances,” added Dr. Harahsheh. My team and I are encouraged by the results of our small study and the anecdotal positive comments from families participating in the program. We look forward to identifying how these approaches can be successfully and cost-effectively implemented as our other options. Families get the care they need .”

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